1.Introduction:

The Detachable Hookloader Truck represents an innovative sanitation vehicle designed to cater to the demands of modern cities and towns. It efficiently collects and transports garbage, providing time-saving and labor-saving features.

In this article, we delve into the selection of the Detachable Hookloader Truck’s chassis, electrical principles, and frame design.

2.Overall Structural Design:

The Detachable Hookloader Truck comprises a Type II chassis, sub-frame assembly, hookloader assembly, garbage bins, and hydraulic system, as depicted in Figure 1.

Layout drawing of detachable garbage truck

Figure 1

3. Chassis Selection:

3.1 Chassis Performance:

To meet national standards GB 7258-2017 “Technical Specifications for Road Vehicle Operation Safety” and GB 1589-2016 “Dimension, Axle Load, and Mass Limits for Motor Vehicles,” the Detachable Hookloader Truck must possess adequate power performance, dimensions, and overall vehicle mass.

3.2 Chassis Selection:

Considering the specifications, the Type II chassis is manufactured by SAIC-GM Wuling Automobile. The appearance depicted in Figure 2.

Chassis Appearance of hooklift

Figure 2

4.Sub-frame Design:

The sub-frame assembly consists of protective bars, mudguards, longitudinal beams, oil cylinder fixed beams, flip support frames, roller mechanisms, and garbage bin supports, all welded and assembled together.

subframe view of hookloader truck

Figure 3

Figure 3 provides a view of the sub-frame. Frame connecting beams, made of welded 70mm×50mm×4.0mm rectangular steel tubes and 4.0mm thick Q235 steel plates, ensure stable connections between the sub-frame and the chassis.

Protective bars, made by welding 50mm×30mm×2.0mm rectangular steel tubes and 20mm×20mm×2.0mm rectangular steel tubes, are connected to the longitudinal beams with four M10 bolts for simple manufacturing and reliable strength.

Mudguards, crafted from 1.5mm Q235 steel, offer both lightweight and reliable support. The flip support frame, combining rectangular tubes, thick plates, and bushings, operates with hinge pins and roller mechanisms to facilitate smooth garbage bin lifting and loading.

5.Hookloader Assembly Design:

The hookloader assembly, as illustrated in Figure 4, comprises a hook, vertical arm, horizontal arm, main arm cylinder shaft sleeve, flip axis sleeve, and bent hook. The hook is pivotal in lifting the garbage bins, while the main arm cylinder shaft sleeve connects to the hydraulic system’s main arm cylinder using a hinge pin.

hookloader ssembly design drawing

Figure 4

The flip axis sleeve connects to the front axle sleeve of the connecting frame assembly through a hinge pin, enabling rotation between the hook arm assembly and the connecting frame assembly. The rotatable bent hook regulates the connection status between the flip support frame and the hook arm.

By designing additional reinforcing ribs, the stress concentration points at the connections between the vertical arm and the horizontal arm, as well as the main arm cylinder shaft sleeve, ensure that the hookloader assembly meets strength requirements.

6.Hydraulic System Design:

The Detachable Hookloader Truck’s hydraulic system controls the lifting and lowering cylinders for efficient garbage bin loading and unloading, shown in Figure 5.

Hydraulic schematic of hookloader control

Figure 5

The hydraulic oil is drawn from the reservoir into the gear pump via motor rotation. The lifting speed of the cylinder is managed by the pressure regulating valve. The three-position four-way solenoid valve, when in position A, activates the lifting function, while the overflow valve ensures excess hydraulic oil flows back to the reservoir during high oil pressure.

The two-position three-way solenoid valve, in position B, enables cylinder descent, regulated by the one-way valve and flow control valve, ensuring safe and controlled operations.

7.Power System Design:

The chassis power supply derives from the engine’s generator and the power battery. The generator has a rated voltage of U=14V and a maximum current of I=90A.

The 45Ah power battery with 12V voltage is insufficient to power the hydraulic system and the entire vehicle’s electrical components when the vehicle is not running.

Therefore, a 120Ah power battery replaces the original 45Ah battery to ensure proper operation of all electrical components and the hydraulic system during vehicle downtime.

8.Electrical Principle Design:

Electrical Principles of hookloader controller

Figure 6

The overall electrical principle design is represented in Figure 6. The control handle (Figure 7) operates the push rod motor, which controls the bending hook connecting the hookloader assembly and the flip support frame.

Hookloader Control handle diagram

Figure 7

The unloading and unboxing states are achieved through the manipulation of various switches and relay-controlled circuits (Figure 8). The emergency stop switch effectively prevents battery consumption when not in use.

Push rod motor size chart

Figure 8

9.Operation Process:

Hookloader Unloading Bins Process

Figure 9

Unloading Process

Figure 10

Figure 10 and 11 demonstrates the operational steps of the Detachable Hookloader Truck, including loading, unloading, and self-unloading processes.

The hookloader assembly’s movement is controlled by buttons on the control handle, and the bending hook regulates the hook’s connection status for effective unloading.

10.Conclusion:

The Detachable Hookloader Truck development has revolutionized garbage collection, minimizing labor intensity for sanitation workers for a safe, energy-efficient, and eco-friendly solution.